我读《本书书名无法描述本书内容》

关于书名


书名是《本书书名无法描述本书内容》,作者是美剧《生活大爆炸》的编剧。英文书名是《Does Santa Exist?》,意思是“圣诞老人存在吗?”,而“本书书名无法描述本书内容”只是这本书里面的一小节标题的模仿,是翻译者取的,比较能吸引眼球,比如我在上海书店的时候,就是看到这个才买的。

引言


从一个故事开始:作者的儿子 A 不相信圣诞老人存在,导致 A 的朋友 B 的母亲 C 不让 B 和 A 一起玩耍,因为母亲 C 不想让 B 变得不相信圣诞老人的存在…… 然而母亲 C 在公开场合是说自己不相信圣诞老人的,却想让自己的女儿 B 相信圣诞老人。原因可能有两种:

 1. 蒙人(如马克思主义,认为神父通过蒙人的方式确立自身权威)
 2. 发疯(如精神分析学认为,人会以非理性的信念抵抗精神压力)

通过进一步的阐述,开启了本书的思想之旅。

逻辑


这部分的第一小节的标题就是《本节标题无法描述本书内容》。是一个悖论吧?

 如果这节标题可以描述,那么标题里的内容说了不能描述
 如果这节标题不能描述,那么标题里的内容又正好说对了

这部分讲了很多,其中某一部分我看得很难受,因为很难理解逻辑悖论。

在书中看到了很多在大学读哲学书时曾经熟悉的字眼,比如:
路德维希·维特根斯坦 -《逻辑哲学论》
伯特兰·罗素 - 罗素悖论
卡尔·马克思 - 《共产党宣言》
等等

世间的理论存在有生命周期--大学(寺庙、教堂等大行会)的功能:

    一开始理论都很简单,之后越来越复杂,很多有智慧的思想家会对它发起挑战,捍卫者就会将理论变得更模糊、更复杂、更具自我防御性,这样才能击退攻击者。再之后,理论就死掉了。其实理论消亡前还会在一个特殊的保护区内待一段时间,这个区域是专门为那些过于复杂、难以在外界生存下去的理论准备的,这就是大学。

此部分出现了“实践理性主义”及“主观期望效用(subjective expected utility)理论”

     就拿欧·亨利的小说《麦琪的礼物》来说,小说讲述了一对新婚夫妇的故事。年轻的姑娘最宝贝的是她的一头长发,年轻的小伙子最在乎的是他那块漂亮的怀表。他们很穷,但都想送给对方圣诞礼物。就在圣诞节的清晨,丈夫把礼物送给了妻子,那时一套昂贵而美丽的梳子。妻子问他哪里来的钱,他说自己卖掉了怀表。之后妻子也拿出了礼物,那是一条配怀表的链子。丈夫问她哪里来的钱,她说自己卖掉了长头发。
   这样的感情是不是很温暖?……仔细想想,一个失去头发的人得到了梳子,一个卖掉怀表的人得到了表链,他们都没得到自己想要的东西。如果他们理性一点,结果就会变得更好吗?

如果他们理性一点,那么就会直接问对方要什么,但那样就没惊喜了。再理性点,就直接给钱。再理性点,就不必送了,省下钱来买别的吃的,毕竟梳子和表链不是必需品。

同样的悖论还发生在立flag上,这种悖论与自败(self-defeating)和自证(self-fulfilling)预言相关。

“自证预言”在周昌乐老师的《跨界论道》课上听过,记得当时听的是“自我实现的预言”,中文叫法不同,只是英文翻译问题。很多鸡汤文,如《思考致富》、《方与圆》等成功学著作,都或多或少提到这个方法,给自己立flag,打鸡血。然而这里面有悖论存在。如下面的引用:

    有些人会花大把的钱雇人给自己打鸡血:“你做得到!”为什么呢?因为如果你相信自己能做到,就真的更有可能做到。假如你攒钱想在周末请来一位励志演说家,以下哪条是正确的呢?
 1. 你要坚信自己存得下钱,因为一旦钱攒够了,你就能请到励志演说家。
 2. 你要坚信自己存不下钱,因为如果你坚信自己存得下钱,已经有这种信念了,就不需要请演说家。
 3. 你要坚信自己存得下钱,因为只有存够了,你才会发现自己不需要他,你自己就能给自己进行励志演讲。

所以我们到底是要坚信哪种,才能存到钱?可以看出,很多成功学里的事例的逻辑都存在悖论,或者说那只是一种believe,生活如果只靠逻辑,那么将处处悖论,如在何光沪的《宗教哲学导论》课上所言:

“一个人必然信仰着某种东西,否则他将无法生活,比如出门搭车,必须信仰着公共汽车不会出现交通事故,出门不带伞是信仰着‘天气好不需要带’。”

人必然有信仰,只是这种信仰不一定是宗教信仰。生活不能只靠逻辑,逻辑的基本假设就是我们的信仰。然而归根究底,那些最基本的假设是无法靠逻辑来证明的,正如数学无法证明“1+1=2”这种“公理”一样。对于“我是谁”、“我从哪里来”和“要到哪里去”这些问题的回答,逻辑也是得不出答案的。

神秘主义


“以手指月,指并非月”

这一部分,作者将思维迈向了东方,印度教和佛教等神秘主义。
20世纪60年代,美国盛行嬉皮士运动,我曾经的偶像Steve Jobs(苹果公司创始人)也曾经是其中一份子。他们嗑药,放纵,向死气沉沉的“理性主义”发起挑战。

“为什么要让自己受制于思维和语言呢?不同的文化会催生不同的思想,你怎么知道自己想的就是对的呢?你必须走出这种保守的理性主义思维,你要超越他”

“不死也不生,他不自何处来,也不到何处去,他像太古一样永恒,即使身体不存在了,他也不会消亡。”(罗巴克,《揭陀奥义书》2:18)

是不是很熟悉?跟印象中的那些得道高僧,那些忽悠人的大师说的话很像?事实上基督教的神学体系中也有一部分人是神秘主义者(只写个圣·托马斯·阿奎那,其他的名字太难打就不写了)

关于四大皆空

《巴利大藏经》中有一个故事:
(华加:)“世尊,修行者修炼得道后,(死后)会在何处重生呢?”
(佛陀:)“华加,并非‘重生’。”
“世尊,这即是说他不会重生?”
“华加,并非‘不会重生’。”
“世尊,他既重生,又不重生吗?”
“华加,非也”
“世尊,他既不会重生,也不会不重生吗?”
“华加,非也”

看到这里,作为曾经痴迷过一阵禅宗的我,是很有感触。看了作者的解释,更是豁然开朗,原文引用如下:

    也许佛陀之于普通人的关系,就类似于普通人之于埃比尼泽·斯克鲁奇(博主我更倾向于称他为 机器人奇哥)。机器人奇哥只想着赚钱,没有亲近的朋友,不会爱别人,除了赚钱攒钱之外什么也不干。他的感情生活十分有限,没有对未来的幻想,也没有精神生活。
设想一下我们要向机器人奇哥解释对孩子付出的情感。机器人奇哥认为世上的一切都能拿金钱来衡量。
我们说:“我对孩子的爱是无法出售的。”
机器人奇哥:“这么说它就是不值钱的喽!”
我们:“不,不是不值钱,它比一切事物都要昂贵!”
机器人奇哥:“啊哈,那它就是很贵喽!就像跑车一样,只不过比那还贵。”
我们:“不,不是这样的,它既不是不值钱,也没有很昂贵。”
机器人奇哥:“好吧,也就是说它既值钱,又不值钱。”
我们:“不!”
机器人奇哥 “他既不值钱又昂贵?”
不是的,机器人奇哥!不是这样的!机器人奇哥之所以这样,是因为它被一种具有束缚力的、焦虑的意识捆住了……

这或许是我见过的最好的解释了。没有那种体验的人,是无法理解的。正如上面的例子,机器人奇哥没有爱,他是无法理解爱的。他只会用另一种东西(金钱)去衡量爱。然而这是无法衡量的,即使你用金钱使得一对情侣分手,也无法衡量出那对情侣之间的爱是多少,无法买到那对情侣之间的爱。同样,历代禅宗祖师所谓“开悟”的感觉,没体验过的就是没体验过,不可说,亦不必去追求。

但是神秘主义并不能解决问题,只能“兼容”矛盾的存在。可以让你包容自己关于“圣诞老人存在”的想法和“圣诞老人不存在”的想法。
但是问题来了,“圣诞蚂蚁”、“圣诞蝴蝶”、“圣诞老师”、“圣诞蛋”存不存在呢?都可以容忍吗?(这么想其实是用左脑的逻辑思考)
或者不需要容忍,只要感受到和谐就好了,只要你不用逻辑去思考, 而是用右脑去体会当下的幸福感即可,鲁迅笔下的阿Q精神胜利法也算是神秘主义吧,谁能知道阿Q是不是真的很开心呢?

幽默


这部分没啥好写的,大概意思是说,逻辑和神秘主义都解决不了的事情,不如一笑而过,归于幽默。
讲了笑话的原理:反差。并且不能解释笑话,如果你去解释了,那么就是毁了这个笑话。
还有一些情感与认知的知识:对于童年阴影,我们回忆起来要么是很冷淡(置之度外),要么是很激动(代入消极的情境)。
英国绅士繁琐的礼节,美国文化的随意自然,还有让我联想到的中国现在各种文化交融过程中的此长彼伏,如《弟子规》的重申、宗教进入法律、外国节日丰盛与传统节日的仪式感缺失等。

人生


沦为荒诞

荒诞主义是我在大学期间最后一个看的主义,看了下阿尔贝·加缪的传记。

这部分写的东西,值得记录的就是“左脑与右脑的战争”:左脑是逻辑(逻辑主义),右脑是情绪感受(神秘主义),幽默是这左右脑的调和者,理性的人是左脑运作大于右脑,感性的人相反。【其实这种大脑模型没啥用,是不是真的我也不知道,写到现在累了,不想深入写这些没兴趣的内容,稍微记录下当作谈资了】

还有马克思·韦伯(Max Weber)的《新教伦理与资本主义精神》的一段引文,大概如下:

    自从禁欲主义者着手重新塑造尘世并树立起它在尘世的理想起,物质产品对人类的生存就开始获得了一种前所未有的控制力量,这力量不断增长,且不屈不饶。今天,宗教禁欲主义的精神虽已逃出这铁笼(有谁知道这是不是最终的结局?),但是,大获全胜的资本主义,依赖于机器的基础,已不再需要这种精神的支持了。启蒙主义——宗教禁欲主义那大笑着的继承者——脸上的玫瑰色红晕似乎也在无可挽回地褪去。天职责任的观念,在我们的生活中也像死去的宗教信仰一样,只是幽灵般地徘徊着。……没人知道将来会是谁在这铁笼里生活;没人知道会不会有一个老观念和旧思想的伟大再生;如果不会,那么会不会在某种骤发的妄自尊大情绪的掩饰下产生一种机械的麻木僵化呢,也没人知道。因为完全可以,而且是不无道理地这样来评说这个文化发展的最后阶段:“专家没有灵魂,纵欲者没有心肝;这个废物幻想着它自己已达到了前所未有的文明程度。”

这段话我是还没看懂它隐射的那些,但大致有点感触:“老观念和旧思想的再生”,现在中东的伊斯兰原教旨主义,和国学热,不就是吗?

    韦伯认为现代文明的发展分为三个阶段:多神论时期、一神论时期、无神论时期。……一神论可谓是一种觉醒,它把仙女和精灵都赶了出去,用唯一的神取代了他们。到了最后,信仰一神论的清教徒又以科学作为武器,瞄准了仅存的神话——上帝,并摧毁了他,从此世间再无神话。最初我们有宗教信仰,而如今却陷在卑劣的物质文明中无法脱身。他认为我们就像维特根斯坦说的那样,爬到高处后把梯子扔了,于是就卡在了这里。

这段话是宗教学的历史的一种观点,不是赞同也不是不赞同,存疑,记录下。

我和你


这部分就是作者介绍他的世界观了。因为这东西不是逻辑可以推出来的,我感觉没有啥说服力,不怎么感兴趣。
大概是在介绍犹太教的分支,犹太密教,叫什么卡巴拉,卡巴拉学者是Kabbalist。“无限”、“面对什么”、“万物的意义”什么鬼的,了解下就好,深入就没必要了。
因为任何一种宗教,都只是人的一种对于“基本假设”的选择。你可以选择易经、佛教、基督教,或者是选择做一个无神论者,相信宇宙规律(虽然有这么一种可能:这没有“人身形象”的宇宙规律其实就是他们相信着的“上帝”)。
选择什么不重要,重要的是,一定要秉持爱与和平,反对战争,让世界和自己心灵更美好。

结尾


开头的两个因为圣诞老人而无法聚会的小孩子结婚了,并且有了孙子。而我也看完这本书了。
能被我记录下来的,都是给我很大感触的。其他有很多细节,我看完就忘了,也不必记得。
这本书就不撕了,留给我爸有空慢慢看吧。

这是我的第一篇关于书的博客,写了近5个小时,很累也很满足。
我终于实现了我的愿望:搭建个人博客,写诗写文章。哈哈~

期待吧,我的下一篇博客是什么呢?

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